Docetaxel-loaded M1 macrophage-derived exosomes for a protected and environment friendly chemoimmunotherapy of breast most cancers | Journal of Nanobiotechnology


M1-Exo preparation, characterization and docetaxel loading

In an effort to induce the polarization of macrophages into M1, naïve macrophages had been incubated with LPS and IFN-γ for twenty-four h. Exosome was then obtained primarily based on a well-established differential centrifugation methodology [19, 20]. The morphology of M1-Exo and DTX-M1-Exo was additional confirmed by TEM and confirmed that they possess effectively dispersed, spherical form with uniform diameter (Fig. 1A and B). The hydrodynamic dimension of the remoted M1-Exo, M0-Exo and drug loaded DTX-M0-Exo, DTX-M1-Exo nanoparticles had been measured by DLS which confirmed a comparatively common dimension round 105.2 ± 0.8, 101.2 ± 0.3, 151.8 ± 0.6 and 163.5 ± 0.4 nm in diameter, respectively (Desk 1). These outcomes instructed that the sizes of exosomes had been barely elevated after drug loading. By utilizing electroporation methodology, each of M0-Exo and M1-Exo confirmed excessive drug loading effectivity that round 15.57 ± 1.7% and 17.62 ± 2.58% of DTX was achieved, respectively (Desk 1).

Fig. 1
figure 1

Morphological characterization of exosomes with or with out drug loading: TEM photographs of (A) M1-Exo and (B) DTX-M1-Exo

Desk 1 Bodily properties and drug loading effectivity of exosome formulations

In vitro mobile uptake and cell viability

Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to picture the mobile uptake of exosomes as drug vesicles. M1-Exo and M0-Exo, loaded with inexperienced fluorescent dye PKH67, was incubated with 4T1 most cancers cells for six h, individually. As proven in Fig. 2, M1-Exo and M0-Exo had been effectively internalized by the cells. As they’re over 100 nm in dimension, they’re extra prone to be taken up through endocytic and phagocytotic pathways. M1-Exo confirmed elevated uptake effectivity in contrast with M0-Exo, which can be attributed to the precise recognition of the floor markers. The excessive mobile internalization skill of M1-Exo is in keeping with different research displaying the phospholipid bilayers of exosomes immediately fuse with cell plasma membrane and launch the cargo/content material into the cytosol of goal cells [21]. Benefiting from this fusion and launch habits, they’ll enhance chemotherapeutic drug supply for most cancers remedy.

Fig. 2
figure 2

Cell cytotoxicity examine of management, DTX, M0-Exo, DTX-M0-Exo, M1-Exo, and DTX-M1-Exo towards 4T1 breast most cancers cells. (** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001, **** P < 0.0001 vs management)

To research in vitro therapeutic efficacy, cell proliferation examine was carried out on 4T1 breast most cancers cells handled with DTX, M0-Exo, DTX-M0-Exo, M1-Exo, and DTX-M1-Exo. The cytotoxicity information is summarized in Fig. 3 on the similar focus of DXT. M0-Exo exhibited negligible results on 4T1 cells, whereas cells handled with M1-Exo barely inhibited mobile development when in comparison with M0-Exo, suggesting that M1-Exo themselves profit most cancers remedy. DTX-M1-Exo considerably lowered most cancers cell proliferation and induced biggest cytotoxicity to the most cancers cells over the remedy interval in comparison with different teams. This indicated that DTX-M1-Exo effectively improved the anticancer effectivity. The cancer-killing capability of DTX-M1-Exo correlated with the excessive mobile uptake skill of M1-Exo as noticed beforehand. DTX-M0-Exo additionally had barely higher anti-proliferative results on 4T1 cells in comparison with DTX alone, which can be attributed to higher mobile internalization skill of exosomes too [21].

Fig. 3
figure 3

The mobile uptake habits of the exosomal vesicles (M1-Exo or M1-Exo) towards 4T1 most cancers cells after 6 h incubation. Within the CLSM photographs, cell nuclei had been stained by DAPI (blue), whereas the exosomes had been stained by fluorescent dye PKH67 (inexperienced). The size bar is 20 µm

DTX-M1-Exo induced naïve macrophage differentiation to M1 phenotype

To evaluate the consequences of DTX-M1-Exo on macrophage polarization, the gene expression of M1 and M2 related markers of handled macrophage cells had been analyzed. As anticipated, LPS+IFN-γ stimulation induced M1 polarization by rising the expression of M1-specific markers iNOS and TNF-α and lowering the expression of M2-specific markers Arg-1 and CD206, whereas IL-4 stimulation promoted M2 polarization, confirmed by the gene expression (Fig. 4). This confirmed that the usual macrophage polarization was established for use as controls for additional comparability. M1-Exo handled macrophages group produced larger degree of inflammatory cytokines together with iNOS and TNF-α, in contrast with clean management group. That is in keeping with earlier examine demonstrating that M1-Exo incorporates RNAs, proteins in addition to proinflammatory components that originated from M1-macrophage, permitting M1-Exo to advertise M1 macrophage phenotype shift and create a neighborhood immunostimulatory microenvironment [22]. The expression of iNOS, TNF-α, Arg-1 and CD206 was not considerably modified after both M0-Exo remedy, suggesting naïve macrophage-derived exosomes didn’t activate macrophage polarization. In distinction, each DTX-M0-Exo and DTX-M1-Exo considerably induced the excessive expression degree of inflammatory cytokines iNOS and TNF-α, which has related sample as noticed in LPS/IFN-γ group. Nevertheless, bothDTX-M0-Exo andDTX-M1-Exo supply techniques achieved differentiation of M0 macrophages to M1 macrophages. In the meantime, the expression ranges of Arg-1 had been down-regulated for DTX-M0-Exo and DTX-M1-Exo teams, whereas the expression ranges of CD206 had been down-regulated for DTX and DTX-M1-Exo teams, as proven in Fig. 4C, D. In the meantime, DTX additionally confirmed barely decrease expression ranges of Arg-1 and CD206, and better expression ranges of inflammatory cytokines iNOS and TNF-α in contrast with clean management group. Above outcomes validated treasured examine that DTX modulated TAM polarization to inflammatory M1 phenotype through inhibition of STAT3 pathway [16]. Collectively, the cytokine expression profiles instructed that DTX-M1-Exo exhibited essentially the most vital inhibition of M2 polarization, whereas induce the polarization of naïve macrophages into inflammatory M1 kind in vitro.

Fig. 4
figure 4

Macrophage phenotypes after remedy of IL-4, LPS + IFN-γ, DTX, M0-Exo, DTX-M0-Exo, M0-Exo, and DTX-M1-Exo, by measuring the expression of M1-macrophage markers (A) iNOS and (B) TNF-α, in addition to M2-macrophage markers (C) Arg-1 and (D) CD206. (* P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001, **** P < 0.0001 vs. the management group)

DTX-M1-Exo extended M1 polarization after IL-4 restimulation

Most most cancers cells promote M2-like TAMs to generate an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and facilitate tumor metastasizes. Subsequently, it’s difficult to constantly repolarize M2-like TAMs into tumoricidal M1 macrophages and preserve excessive efficiency of M1 polarization. To guage repolarization capability of the macrophages handled with DTX-M1-Exo, we pre-treated naïve macrophages with IL-4 to imitate M2 macrophage-dominant tumor microenvironment, after which assessed the cytokine expression profiles of the macrophages after remedies. As proven in Fig. 5, we discovered that when deal with stimulated M2 macrophages with DTX-M1-Exo, they confirmed excessive expression of iNOS and TNF-α, whereas low expression ranges of Arg-1 and CD206. Above outcomes instructed that DTX-M1-Exo remedy induced M1 macrophage polarization with long-lasting potent skill. Quite the opposite, DTX group and DTX-M0-Exo group failed to extend the expression ranges of the M1 markers in had been lowered in response to IL-4 stimulation. Within the meantime, they elevated the expression of the M2 markers, indicating that macrophages handled with both DTX or DTX-M0-Exo weren’t capable of be repolarized to M1 phenotype in tumor microenvironment. General, our outcomes confirmed that DTX-M1-Exo extended M1 macrophage polarization even upon M2 macrophage stimulation. We demonstrated that DTX-M1-Exo prevented M1 macrophage repolarization to M2, which might reverse immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and profit the most cancers remedy.

Fig. 5
figure 5

Macrophage repolarization functionality of IL-4-induced M2 macrophages, adopted by the remedy of LPS + IFN-γ, DTX, M0-Exo, DTX-M0-Exo, M0-Exo, and DTX-M1-Exo, by measuring the expression of M1-macrophage markers (A) iNOS and (B) TNF-α, in addition to M2-macrophage markers (C) Arg-1 and (D) CD206. (* P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001, **** P < 0.0001 vs. the management group)

DTX-M1-Exo triggered mitochondrial dysfunction on naïve macrophages

It’s identified that mitochondrial metabolism is related to macrophage polarization and performance alteration. Extra just lately, research demonstrated that mitochondria well being performs an necessary function in macrophage repolarization [14, 15]. To additional discover the mechanism of DTX-M1-Exo induced M1 macrophage repolarization, we characterised the mitochondrial perform by measuring mitochondrial membrane potential modifications and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mitoROS) manufacturing in response to completely different formulations. Mitochondrial membrane potential is a key indicator of mitochondrial membrane actions throughout OXPHO [23], whereas discount of mitochondrial membrane potential is an indication of mitochondria harm. On this examine, the handled macrophages had been stained by a mitochondrial membrane potential dye TMRM and analyzed by move cytometry. As confirmed in Fig. 6A, DTX-M1-Exo decreased the extent of mitochondrial potential to the best extent in naïve macrophages evaluate to different teams, suggesting irregular mitochondrial perform. As well as, lack of mitochondrial membrane potential is linked with accumulation of mitochondrial ROS. We then monitored the degrees of mitochondrial ROS utilizing a fluorescent dye MitoSOX and located that DTX-M1-Exo generated the best degree of mitochondrial ROS in contrast with both DTX group or DTX-M0-Exo group (Fig. 5B). These findings indicated that DTX-M1-Exo inducing mitochondrial dysfunction outcomes a major contribution to improved M1 polarization functionality, which might improve the cancer-killing skill of tumoricidal M1 macrophages.

Fig. 6
figure 6

Mitochondria perform of macrophages with IL-4, LPS + IFN-γ, DTX, M0-Exo, DTX-M0-Exo, M0-Exo, and DTX-M1-Exo, decided by (A) mitochondrial membrane potential modifications and (B) mitochondrial ROS induction. (* P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, **** P < 0.0001)

M1-Exo-DTX lowered tumor burden and enhanced anti-tumor effectivity in vivo

Above in vitro experiments have proven that DTX-M1-Exo had nice potential in sustaining potent tumoricidal M1 phenotype. Therefore, it might enhance most cancers remedy by inducing chemotherapy-based most cancers killing and modulating tumor immune microenvironment. To confirm the in vivo anti-tumor effectivity of DTX-M1-Exo, BALB/C mice bearing 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma had been established and injected with PBS management, M1-Exo, DTX, or DTX-M1-Exo. Each DTX-M1-Exo and DTX teams confirmed sure suppression of tumor development when in comparison with administration of PBS (Fig. 7A). The remedy of DTX-M1-Exo confirmed the best inhibition of tumor development amongst all of the teams (p < 0.05). The discount in tumor dimension in vivo agrees with the in vitro cytotoxicity examine. As well as, M1-Exo group confirmed a barely larger degree of suppression tumor development as in comparison with PBS group, which can be related to macrophage-mediated tumoricidal exercise of M1-Exo.

Fig. 7
figure 7

Tumor development inhibition of breast most cancers 4T1in BALB/C mice. Mice had been injected i.v. with PBS management, M1-Exo, DTX, and DTX-M1-Exo at focus of 5 mg/kg DTX: (A) Tumor quantity modifications. (B) Consultant histological photographs of slices of 4T1 tumor after last remedy utilizing (i) H&E staining (scale bar = 100 μm) and (ii) Ki67 staining (scale bar = 200 μm)

Inhibition of tumor development was additional validated by staining a nuclear protein Ki67 which is related to tumor cell proliferation (Fig. 7B) In Fig. 7Bii, the remedy of DTX-M1-Exo considerably decreased the variety of Ki67-positive cells (brown staining) within the tumors, in contrast with different teams, indicating the discount of tumor burden. That is in keeping with the outcomes of tumor quantity modifications. In the meantime, histological photographs of the H&E-stained tumor sections excised from the completely different remedy teams confirmed that DTX-M1-Exo induced dramatic cell dying within the tumors in comparison with that of both M1-Exo or free DTX (Fig. 7Bi). These outcomes recommend that DTX-M1-Exo can considerably enhance the therapeutic efficacy of DTX at each mobile and in vivo ranges.

M1-Exo-DTX elevated macrophage infiltration in tumor

To guage macrophage activation and intratumoral distribution of M1-Exo-DTX, the tumor tissues had been fastened, sectioned, stained and imaged utilizing confocal microscopy. We discovered that considerably larger quantity of DTX-M1-Exo and M1-Exo had been gathered within the tumor area, in contrast with different teams (Fig. 8). This tumor homing habits of M1-Exo is in keeping with the outcomes reported within the literature [24]. Our information demonstrated that M1-Exo is a perfect candidate for chemotherapeutic drug supply. Moreover, DTX-M1-Exo handled tumor additionally confirmed larger degree of F480 expression, suggesting that DTX-M1-Exo performs a optimistic function in macrophage infiltration and activation within the tumor tissues. To research macrophage programming, we then stained tumor tissues with M1 marker CD86 and M2 marker CD163. As proven in Extra file 1: Figs. S1 and S2, DTX-M1-Exo handled tumor had lowest degree of CD163-positive macrophages in comparison with different teams, and in distinction, DTX-M1-Exo handled tumor had highest degree of CD86-positive macrophages, which assist our earlier discovering that DTX-M1-Exo enabled potent tumoricidal M1 polarization. That is confirmed by accumulation of CD86-positve macrophages noticed within the DTX-M1-Exo group (Extra file 1: Fig. S2). These findings indicated that M1-Exo, particularly, DTX-M1-Exo triggered mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in inhibition of M2 phenotype polarization and extended the immunotherapeutic results of M1 macrophages.

Fig. 8
figure 8

The distribution of exosome formulations and macrophages in vivo. Consultant fluorescent photographs displaying nucleus (blue), PKH67-labelled exosomes (inexperienced), F480-labelled macrophages (pink), and merged channels (from left to proper). The size bar denotes 20 μm

In vivo security evaluation

The in vivo biosafety profiles of DTX-M1-Exo had been systematically investigated and introduced in Fig. 9. After intravenous administration of the exosome formulations, each DTX-M1-Exo and M1-Exo confirmed minimal poisonous results within the mice, the place they exhibit no vital weight reduction through the therapeutic regime in comparison with the PBS management group (Fig. 9A). In distinction, the DTX group displayed statistically vital weight reduction. Subsequent, the pathological examination of main organs, together with the liver, coronary heart, lung and kidney was carried out utilizing H&E staining. As proven is Fig. 9B, no apparent morphological modifications or lesions within the harvested organs had been noticed in DTX-M1-Exo, M1-Exo, or PBS management remedy group. Whereas DTX group confirmed hydropic degeneration or necrosis in main organs, suggesting this chemotherapeutic agent triggered some tissue harm. The outcomes indicated that DTX-M1-Exo has potent anticancer efficacy for breast most cancers along with good biocompatibility.

Fig. 9
figure 9

In vivo biosafety evaluation. A Physique weight modifications. B Consultant histological photographs of H&E-stained slices of every organ two days after remedy of (i) management, (ii) DTX, (iii) M1-Exo, and (iv) DTX-M1-Exo. The size bar is 100 μm. (n = 3)


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